# Constraints on the universe as a numerical simulation

@article{Beane2014ConstraintsOT, title={Constraints on the universe as a numerical simulation}, author={Silas R. Beane and Zohreh Davoudi and Martin J. Savage}, journal={The European Physical Journal A}, year={2014}, volume={50}, pages={1-9} }

Abstract.Observable consequences of the hypothesis that the observed universe is a numerical simulation performed on a space-time lattice or grid are explored. The simulation scenario is first motivated by extrapolating current trends in computational resource requirements for lattice QCD into the future. Using the historical development of lattice gauge theory technology as a guide, we assume that our universe is an early numerical simulation and investigate potentially observable consequences… Expand

#### Paper Mentions

#### 39 Citations

Lorentz Covariant Lattice Gauge Theory

- Physics, Mathematics
- 2012

Lattice gauge theory's discretization of spacetime suffers from a drawback in that Lorentz covariance is lost because the axes of the lattice create preferred directions in spacetime. Smaller and… Expand

Conspiratorial cosmology - the case against the Universe

- Physics
- 2013

Based on the cosmological results of the Planck Mission, we show that all parameters describing our Universe within the \Lambda CDM model can be constructed from a small set of numbers known from… Expand

A Universe Without Matter: The Processing of Information/Energy through Discontinuous Space Cells in Two Models; a Computer Simulation, or a Self-Replicating Substrate of Space Cells

- Physics
- 2021

Whether the universe is a computer simulation, or whether we wish to efficiently model our universe in a computer simulation, there would be benefits to modeling it in a fashion analogous to computer… Expand

A lattice Maxwell system with discrete space–time symmetry and local energy–momentum conservation

- Physics, Mathematics
- Physics Letters A
- 2019

A lattice Maxwell system is developed with gauge-symmetry, symplectic structure and discrete space-time symmetry. Noether's theorem for Lie group symmetries is generalized to discrete symmetries for… Expand

The Termination Risks of Simulation Science

- 2020

Historically, the hypothesis that our world is a computer simulation has struck many as just another improbable-but-possible “skeptical hypothesis” about the nature of reality. Recently, however, the… Expand

Freak Observers and the Simulation Argument

- Philosophy
- 2013

The simulation hypothesis claims that the whole observable universe, including us, is a computer simulation implemented by technologically advanced beings for an unknown purpose. The simulation… Expand

The Soft Shadow of Physical Reality

- Computer Science
- 2020

A theory has been reproduced in this paper dictating the negation of the relative entropy persistent in the present to prevent their collapse as subject to increment of entropy while moving forward in time and decrement while moving backward in time. Expand

A Bayesian Approach to the Simulation Argument

- Physics, Computer Science
- 2020

This work has shown that if humanity does start producing such simulations, then this would radically shift the odds and make it very probable that the authors are in fact sims, and argued that since the hypothesis that such simulations are technically possible remains unproven, statistical calculations need to consider not just the number of state spaces, but the intrinsic model uncertainty. Expand

A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos

- Physics
- 2016

Over the last forty years, scientists have uncovered evidence that if the Universe had been forged with even slightly different properties, life as we know it - and life as we can imagine it - would… Expand

Shearing approach to gauge invariant Trotterization

- Physics
- 2021

Universal quantum simulations of gauge field theories are exposed to the risk of gauge symmetry violations when it is not known how to compile the desired operations exactly using the available gate… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES

The Topology and Size of the Universe from the Cosmic Microwave Background

- Physics
- 2011

We study the possibility that the universe is flat, but with one or more space directions compactified. Using the seven-year WMAP data, we constrain the size of the compact dimension to be L/L0 ≥… Expand

Planck-scale Lorentz violation constrained by Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

- Physics
- 2009

We investigate the consequences of higher dimension Lorentz violating, CPT even kinetic operators that couple standard model fields to a non-zero vector field in an Effective Field Theory framework.… Expand

Limits on Lorentz violation from the highest energy cosmic rays

- Physics
- 2004

We place several new limits on Lorentz violating effects, which can modify particles' dispersion relations, by considering the highest energy cosmic rays observed. Since these are hadrons, this… Expand

High-energy tests of Lorentz invariance

- Physics
- 1999

We develop a perturbative framework with which to discuss departures from exact Lorentz invariance and explore their potentially observable ramifications. Tiny noninvariant terms introduced into the… Expand

Limits on a Lorentz- and parity-violating modification of electrodynamics.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1990

The Chern-Simons Lagrangian would rotate the plane of polarization of radiation from distant galaxies, an effect which is not observed, and the magnitude of the vector is 1.7 times the Hubble constant. Expand

Uncertainty relation on a world crystal and its applications to micro black holes

- Physics
- 2010

We formulate generalized uncertainty relations in a crystal-like universe\char22{}a ``world crystal''\char22{}whose lattice spacing is of the order of Planck length. In the particular case when… Expand

Living in a simulated universe

- Physics
- 2007

We explain why, if we live in a simulated reality, we might expect to see occasional glitches and small drifts in the supposed constants and laws of Nature over time. Of late, here has been much… Expand

Confinement of Quarks

- Physics
- 1974

A mechanism for total confinement of quarks, similar to that of Schwinger, is defined which requires the existence of Abelian or non-Abelian gauge fields. It is shown how to quantize a gauge field… Expand

First results from 2+1 dynamical quark flavors on an anisotropic lattice: Light-hadron spectroscopy and setting the strange-quark mass

- Physics
- 2009

We present the first light-hadron spectroscopy on a set of ${N}_{f}=2+1$ dynamical, anisotropic lattices. A convenient set of coordinates that parameterize the two-dimensional plane of light and… Expand

Improved continuum limit lattice action for QCD with wilson fermions

- Physics
- 1985

Abstract Two possible ways of extending Symanzik's improvement programme to lattice fermions namely improvement to first and second order in the lattice sppacing a are discussed. The corresponding… Expand